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  Activation the initiation of the EAS by transmission of the EAS codes.
APAWS- Alternative 
Public Alert and
Warning System
Another term for IPAWS.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) a standard set of characters with numerical equivalents
Attention Signal eight seconds of two tones (853 and 960 Hz) used as an audio alert
Audio Frequency
Shift Keying (AFSK)
a digital modulation technique that uses two shifting audio frequencies to transmit binary data
Authenticator Word
Lists
the list of words that federal officials send prior to official EAS national activation; used to substantiate the information being sent. The use of separate and different authentication may be used for local area EAS activations
Authorization Letter the official authorization, given by the FCC, for an EAS participant station to cease operations during a national level activation of the EAS, such as broadcast stations to go off the air
Automatic
Interruption
the automatic encoding and transmission of EAS codes for preselected events. This enables EAS warning messages to be automatically broadcast without operator intervention. This is one of the most important benefits of the EAS over the old EBS. .
Baud Rate the speed of data transmitted, equal to the number of elements sent per second (equal to bits per second if a bit is the element)  
Bit Rate the speed of binary data transmitted, equal to the number of digital bits sent per second. For EAS, 6250/12 = 520.83; or 2083.33 - 1562.5 = 520.83
BSPP, Broadcast
Service Protection
Program
EAS sources that have government-furnished equipment
Certification an equipment authorization issued by the FCC based on representations and test data submitted by the applicant for equipment designated to be operated without individual license under Parts 15 and 18 of the rules
Class (A,B,C,D)
Station AM/FM/TV
A means to categorize US broadcast stations based on transmitter power and other criteria. Classes are defined and governed by the FCC.
Closed Circuit Test
(CCT)
a test of the EAN network from FEMA to the EAN program participants, and ending at the facilities of the EAN participants' affiliates
COO,
Communications
Operations Order(s)
  are the specific instructions on how to perform specific actions unique to the State and each Local Area. There should be a separate, numbered COO for each subject, such as how to perform tests, how to initiate a real EBS broadcast, etc. Every EBS plan must have numbered Operations Orders attached as a part of the plan prior to acceptance by the State Emergency Communications Committee. An EAS Plan lacking the necessary and required Operations Orders will not be approved by the FCC-SEC. A typical checklist for preparing COOs is: 1. National Weather Service Procedures 2. Local Government Procedures 3. LP1 Station Procedures 4. All Other Broadcast Station Procedures 5. Monitoring Assignments 6. Cable Television Procedures 7. Local Authenticator Procedure (optional) 8. Unscheduled Exercises/Tests
CPCS Obsolete designation for the principal local area EBS station. See "LP".
CTIA - Cellular
Telecommunications
and Internet
Association
an international nonprofit membership organization founded in 1984, representing all sectors of wireless communications – cellular, personal communication services and enhanced specialized mobile radio.
Decoder, EAS an electronic device used by EAS participants to receive EAS alerts
Decoder, Two-Tone   an electronic device that alerts operators to the reception of the two-tone signal
Direct Broadcast
Satellite (DBS)
a service intended to deliver satellite signals directly to consumers using small, relatively inexpensive receiver stations
EAN network the interconnection of the Federal Government with national networks and program suppliers used to disseminate the EAN messages
EAS Local Area An FCC Local Area consists of at least one county and may consist of several counties or parts of counties. The Local Areas are defined in the State EAS Plan. The LECC (Local Emergency Communications Committee) and the SECC (State Emergency Communications Committee) may revise the boundaries of any Local Area.
EAS, Emergency
Alert System
replaces the EBS. It really upgrades the existing EBS by including new and future digital techniques to achieve faster distribution of Warnings and with greater penetration.
EBS, Emergency
Broadcast System
(now defunct) developed (the Civil-Alert Broadcast System) by the State of Hawaii Civil Defense Division and the Hawaii Association of Broadcasters in 1960. Adopted for broadcasters nationwide in 1963 by the FCC; it was named the Emergency Broadcast System to replace the obsolete CONELRAD system.
EDIS, Emergency
Digital Information
Service
an enhanced emergency information dissemination capability with digital communications techniques used by the State of California. EDIS is a very inexpensive way to provide a hard copy printout of emergency information bulletins from the National Weather Service, the River Forecast Center, the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Earthquake Information Center (in Golden, CO), the U. S. Forest Service and the State Office of Emergency Services.
EAN network EAN network - the interconnection of the Federal Government with national networks and program suppliers used to disseminate the EAN messages
EAS Local Area An FCC Local Area consists of at least one county and may consist of several counties or parts of counties. The Local Areas are defined in the State EAS Plan. The LECC (Local Emergency Communications Committee) and the SECC (State Emergency Communications Committee) may revise the boundaries of any Local Area.
EAS, Emergency
Alert System
replaces the EBS. It really upgrades the existing EBS by including new and future digital techniques to achieve faster distribution of Warnings and with greater penetration.
EBS, Emergency
Broadcast System
(now defunct) developed (the Civil-Alert Broadcast System) by the State of Hawaii Civil Defense Division and the Hawaii Association of Broadcasters in 1960. Adopted for broadcasters nationwide in 1963 by the FCC; it was named the Emergency Broadcast System to replace the obsolete CONELRAD system.
EDIS, Emergency
Digital Information
Service
an enhanced emergency information dissemination capability with digital communications techniques used by the State of California. EDIS is a very inexpensive way to provide a hard copy printout of emergency information bulletins from the National Weather Service, the River Forecast Center, the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Earthquake Information Center (in Golden, CO), the U. S. Forest Service and the State Office of Emergency Services.
Emergency Action
Notification (EAN)
the message for national EAS activation
Emergency Action
Termination (EAT)
the message for national EAS termination
Encoder (Two-Tone) an electronic device that produces the two-tone signal for the EBS
Encoder, EAS an electronic device used by EAS participants to originate EAS alerts by creating the EAS codes for transmission to other participants and the public
Enhanced EBS means any system whereby the county EOC transmits EBS messages to broadcast stations over an existing local government radio system. The advantage of Enhanced EBS is that it enables every broadcast station to be a Local Primary station. The EAS achieves "enhanced EBS" by virtue of the fact that all stations may receive National Weather Radio and CLERS transmissions simultaneously. Local governments, with prior planning and State permission, may use the existing CLERS system for this purpose.
EOC Emergency Operations Center. The facility designated by local government as the coordination center to mitigate the effects of the emergency. The State Operations Center (SOC) is located at OES headquarters in Sacramento. The State Government may be coordinated by one if its Regional Emergency Operations Centers (REOC).
EOM Code End of Message: in ASCII form 'NNNN', this burst of data, sent three times signifies the end of an EAS message and EAS activation
Event Code a three character ASCII code is the EAS headers that denotes the type or cause of emergency event
FCC Federal Communications Commission  
FEMA Federal Emergency
Management
Agency
one of the three federal agencies that administer EAS; the Federal agency responsible for civil defense. It is the Federal counterpart to state and local emergency services and civil defense
FIPS Number
(or FIPS Code)
a five character ASCII code in the EAS headers that represents those counties affected by an EAS activation, as defined by the Federal Information Processing System that assigns each state and territory with their respective counties a five digit number
Header Code a single string of intelligent digital EAS ASCII data that includes the originator, event, location, time period, and other basic information concerning an emergency; three header codes usually precede the voice warning message
IPAWS Integrated
Public Alert and
Warning System
(IPAWS) is a modernization and integration of the nation’s alert and warning infrastructure to integrate new and existing public alert and warning systems and technologies in order to provide Federal, State, Territorial, Tribal, and local alert and warning authorities a broader range of message options and communications pathways.
Julian Calendar a method of specifying the date by the number of days which have passed since the first day of January in a year. Consisting of three digits. Example: January 1, 1995 = 001
Key Source a source which is central to the dissemination of emergency alerts and information, such as an NP, SP, SR, or LP broadcast station
LECC
Communications
Operations Order
Each Local Emergency Communications Committee must write and distribute numbered Communications Operations Orders, as required, to provide specific instructions to their broadcast stations, cable television firms, National Weather Service, and local government officials. See "COO"
LECC Local
Emergency
Communications
Committee
A committee of the Federal Communications Commission. The LECC is what was formerly called the Operational Area Emergency Communications Communications Committee (OAECC). The LECC serves one FCC Local Area. The LECC is comprised of an executive with decision-making authority from every broadcast licensee, cable TV firm, and representatives of other communications services providing, servicing or managing emergency telecommunications. This may include the Public Safety, Amateur, Common Carrier, Radio Common Carrier, cellular telephone, paging, Business, Civil Air Patrol, Forestry, Special Industrial, Citizens and other Radio Services. The primary purpose of an LECC is to prepare and maintain a viable EAS Plan and EAS system. The secondary benefit of the LECC is to bring together the key people necessary to successful communications to support warnings and emergency information to and for the public.
Local Area An FCC Local Area consists of at least one county and may consist of several counties or parts of counties. The Local Areas are defined in the State EAS Plan. The LECC (Local Emergency Communications Committee) and the SECC (State Emergency Communications Committee) may revise the boundaries of any Local Area.
Location Code an ASCII code in the EAS headers that specifies the location of an emergency utilizing the five character FIPS code of a state or a county, and a sixth character to designate nine divisions of a county
Low Power
Television (LPTV)
a television signal translator station which also originates programming
LP Local Primary. A local area EAS station. Every area shall have an LP1 (the primary) and an LP2 (the secondary broadcast station. All other PN (participating) stations in that local area shall tune their EAS receiver to an LP1 and an LP2 broadcast station. When several former Emergency Communications Area are combined into one larger ECA, the former LP1 stations in the former areas often become an LP2 for the newer, larger area.
Mapbook a list of broadcast and cable systems and their EAS designation delineated by state and local area for use by other stations to determine the best source of EAS monitoring; an FCC generated attachment to every State plan
Mark Frequency the audio frequency of AFSK modulation that corresponds to a digital bit of one (1); the mark frequency of EAS codes is 6250/3 Hz, or approximately 2083.33 Hz
Monitoring
Assignment
the off-the-air broadcast or cable sources of EAS activations and programming as given in the FCC Mapbook and the State plans. Monitoring assignments may be spelled out in an EAS Plan COO. This COO will apply to all broadcast stations and cable television firms in the local area covered by the local EAS plan; all must equip their EAS receiver/decoder according to the COO prepared by the LECC and approved by the SECC.
National Control
Point Procedures
those national EAS procedures used only by national networks and program suppliers  
National Periodic
Test (NPT)
tests of National Primary sources
NN Non-participating
National
an EAS source (usually a broadcast station) that has elected not to participate in the National-level EAS and removes its carrier from the air if a national-level activation occurs
NOAA National
Oceanic and
Atmospheric
Administration
Weather Service, one of the three federal agencies that participate in the EAS
NP National Primary a primary source of Presidential or other national EAS activations and programming, including broadcast stations involved with the (formerly called) PEP system and EAN Networks.
NWR NOAA Weather
Radio
a service of the National Weather Service that provides to a local area continuous broadcasts of the latest weather information and any weather-related emergency warnings using one of seven VHF radio channels. The predominant NWR frequencies are 162.400 and 162.550 MHz
NWS National
Weather Service
an operation of NOAA that is directly responsible for issuing local weather-related emergency alerts and Warnings in addition to day-to-day forecasts and other weather activities
OA Operational Area An Operational Area is typically a county within a state, however some counties may be better served by broadcast stations in bordering states. Some EAS activations may involve only a portion of one county or it may involve several counties. Federal and local authorities must take these factors into consideration when preparing their plans and Communications Operations Orders.
OAECC Operational
Area Emergency
Communications
Committee
  Obsolete term. New term: LECC - Local Emergency Communications Committee of the FCC.
OES - Office of
Emergency Services
The element of the State and local governments having responsibility for civil defense and natural disaster response programs. Usually every county and many municipalities have their own emergency services offices separate and distinct from the State emergency services management role. Thus the term "OES" should always be preceded by the specific name of the jurisdiction.
Operating Handbook a document issued by the FCC that instructs broadcast station and cable personnel of the actions they must take during an activation of the EAS
Operator
Interruption
the transmission of an EAS activation which has been manually initiated by broadcast station or cable system personnel
Originator Code a three character ASCII code in an EAS header which denotes the source of an activation
PEP (Obsolete, meaning Primary Entry Point.) See "NP".
PN Participating formerly a Primary station. A PN is a participating station; i.e., any broadcast station (and cable TV firm) that broadcasts EAS material transmitted to it by an LP station.  
Preselected code an EAS event which the operator of EAS equipment has chosen to be automatically encoded and retransmitted upon reception
Primary (obsolete) See PN
Primary Entry Point
(PEP)
(Obsolete term.) They are the key broadcast stations throughout the United States which together can provide national emergency information in the event that the primary national alerting methods are inoperable. See "NP" (National Primary).
Program Priorities the precedence of the information that must be transmitted during an EAS activation, namely national, local, and state activations in that order
Protocol a standard set of guidelines by which digital information is encoded and decoded, including the common code structure, the character set used, the sequence and timing of codes, and modulation technique used for radio transmission
Radio Broadcast
Data System (RBDS)
a defined protocol for data that is transmitted on the 57Hz subcarrier of FM radio broadcast stations utilized mainly by consumer devices equipped to receive it  
Required Monthly
Test (RMT)
See "Tests". A coordinated monthly test of EAS operations involving the full receiving and transmission of EAS codes, Attention Signal, EAS test programming (message), and EAS EOM codes. It must be either simulcast or be retransmitted within fifteen (15) minutes by all participating broadcast stations and subject cable systems.
Required Weekly
Test (RWT)
See "Tests." An independent weekly test of EAS equipment only involving the decoding and encoding of EAS header codes and EOM codes.
RMT - Monthly The coordinated monthly EAS test requires that all local area EAS participants simulcast a 30-second, digital opening + audio message + digital closing broadcast. A broadcast delay of no more than fifteen (15) minutes is permissible. The coordinated monthly EAS tests shall alternate so that the even-numbered monthly tests are performed in the daytime and nighttime tests shall be performed during the odd-numbered months. The LECC shall prescribe the time of these tests in a communications Operations Order (COO) for the Local Area EAS Plan and distributed to all Local Area EAS participants.
RPU - Radio Pickup
Unit.
The FCC term for transceivers used by the broadcast industry to originate programming from remote locations (i.e., sporting events, news reports, traffic surveillance aircraft, etc.) Where the Primary and the program entry point EOC meet Federal criteria for radiation fallout protected facilities, an RPU link may be installed between the EOC and the Primary to facilitate the input of emergency information independent of telephone lines.  
RS-232/RS422 a common interface standard which specifies the mechanical connection, electronic signals, and the function of the signals carried across the interface
RWT - Weekly An EAS test originated by every broadcast station in accordance with Part 11 of the FCC Rules. The primary differences from the weekly EBS tests are that it is entirely digital and does not include the eight (8) second EBS two-tones. Local governments are encouraged to place exercise calls at any time of the day or night to their LP1 station. Such a test should follow a procedure specified by the LECC in a COO. This will exercise both LP1 station personnel and local government officials in the procedures of placing the call, authenticating (if applicable), announcing the test message; and station personnel in recording and checking their success in doing so. These exercise tests are not for broadcast.
SAME Specific Area Message Encoder. A National Weather Service term. Same as WRSAME.
SECC - State
Emergency
Communications
Committee
  A committee of the Federal Communications Commission. The State Emergency Communications Committee is responsible for preparing and maintaining the State EAS Plan. The FCC appoints the FCC-SECC Chair. The Chair, in turn, appoints its Vice-Chairs; one must be from the cable television industry. Each LECC Chair is a member of the SECC.
SECC
Communications
Operation Order
The Operation Orders, generated by an SECC as required, to provide specific instructions to broadcast stations.
Space Frequency the audio frequency of AFSK modulation that corresponds to a digital bit of zero (0); the space frequency of EAS codes is 6250/4 Hz, or 1562.5 Hz.
State Primary - SP a primary source of EAS state programming which can originate with a Governor or designated representative, such as a state's emergency operations officer using the State microwave system and other VHF and UHF mountaintop base stations.
State Relay - SR an entity which receives and retransmits EAS activations in a State Relay Network to assist in bringing a state activation to all Local Areas of a state 
State Relay Network a system of facilities used to distribute State EAS activations and programming across a state. Typically a statewide system of microwave, VHF-FM high band, and UHF-FM radios owned and maintained by the state. Interconnection with systems of others further disseminates EAS programming. The programming is delivered to VHF-FM and UHF-FM receivers tuned to the State Relay Network. Broadcasters and cable TV companies are encouraged to obtain suitable radio receivers to obtain the State EAS input. The State Relay Network and any portion thereof may be used for local EAS purposes when such use is approved in a State Plan.
State/Local Plan a document that details monitoring assignments, actions to be taken in emergency activations, and other guidance for broadcasters and cable personnel in the use of the EAS. The EAS Plan is written and signed off by the broadcasters and the National Weather Service; input and participation from local emergency management agencies is solicited.
Subcarrier an inaudible portion of the broadcast signal that is added to the program signal of the FM or TV sound and these can include the FM 57 kHz, 67 kHz, 69 kHz, and 92 kHz and the TV Subsidiary Communications Services
Subsidiary
Communications
Services
a subcarrier of television and FM stations providing a second audio programming source  
Type Acceptance an equipment authorization issued by the FCC based on test data submitted by the applicant for equipment to be used pursuant to a station authorization

UTC

Coordinated Universal Time, the world-wide common time standard that is used in EAS headers for time stamp

Valid Code

an EAS header which has been matched bit-for-bit with one or two other received headers thereby checked for validity

Voluntary
Participation

As redefined in the 1990 regional FCC workshops on the EBS. Voluntary participation in local EAS activations means that broadcasters are encouraged to carry all EAS activations that concern the safety of life and property. The Commission deems it reasonable and proper that each broadcaster choose, in advance, to agree or not to agree to participate in all local EAS activations and that such be reflected in the EAS Plans. Local government, the National Weather Service, and broadcasters must know, in advance, which stations choose not to participate. A "maybe" must be construed as a choice for non- participation. The digital and automatic features of the EAS successfully remove extenuating staffing or technical circumstances that prevent or limit participation in local EBS activations.
WRSAME Weather Radio Specific Area Message Encoder, a device used by the National Weather Service to broadcast WRSAME data on the National Weather Radio for day-to-day forecasts and weather related emergency announcements. These codes are non-proprietary and the primary system used nationwide by the NWS. Whereas other schemes, protocols, and systems may be also employed, they are secondary and in addition to the WRSAME/SAME protocol. Same as EAS protocol.
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